By Howard Nema
Propaganda shares many techniques with advertising. In fact, advertising can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product. However, propaganda usually has political or nationalist themes. Propaganda can take the form of leaflets, posters, TV, and radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other medium.
The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group.
Propaganda is a mighty weapon in war. In this case its aim is usually to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external. The technique is to create a false image in the mind.
Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare. It is classified according to the source. White propaganda comes from an openly identified source. Black propaganda pretends to be from a friendly source, but is actually from an adversary. Grey propaganda pretends to be from a neutral source, but comes from an adversary.
Propaganda may be administered in very insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about history, certain groups, or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system.
Propaganda itself has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The writings of Romans like Livy are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman statist propaganda.
Lippman and Bernays’ war propaganda campaign produced such intense anti-German
The current public relations industry is a direct outgrowth of Lippman and Bernays’ work and is still used extensively by the United States government, celebrities and major corporations.
Ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, and the Baltic states were told that blood ties to Germany were stronger than their allegiance to their new countries. Potential enemies, such as France and Britain, were told that Germany had no quarrel with the people of the country, but that their governments were trying to start a war with Germany. All were constantly reminded of the greatness of German cultural, scientific, and military achievements.
After the loss at Stalingrad, the main theme changed. Germany was now depicted as the sole defender of what they called “Western European culture” against the “Bolshevist hordes” by the propaganda machine. The introduction of the V-1 and V-2 “vengeance weapons” was used as a psychological weapon to convince Britain that it their efforts to win the war are hopelessness.
Of course, the United States and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively before during and after World War II and throughout the Cold War. Both sides used film, television and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other and Third World nations.
FRANK WISNER head of CIA Operation Mockingbird
In the 1950’s the United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, in part is supported by the Central Intelligence Agency and provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively via Operation Mockingbird which continues to this day as a CIA black-operation.
The Soviet Union’s official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda, while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises.
|FRANK WISNER JR|
In the 1960’s Cuba served as both a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. In turn, Radio Habana Cuba broadcast original programming and The Voice of Vietnam as well as relayed Radio Moscow.
In the 2001 Afghan invasion, psychological operations tactics (PsyOps) were employed to demoralize the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population. Aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement
So have the other puppets-in-chief like Bush, Clinton, Bush. Reagan, Carter, Ford, Nixon, Johnson.
Identifying these messages is necessary to study the methods by which they are spread.
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